Gastric Cancer Disease
Gastric cancer is a malignant disease occurs in the stomach (an organ of the digestive system) which becomes a major cause of cancer death worldwide, especially in developing countries. The incidence of this form of gastric cancer is extremely high in Japan, Chile, and Iceland where the most frequent cancer are happened in men.
Gastric cancer is commonly known to be not-angiogenic, but advanced gastric cancer (AGC) is very aggressive and easy to metastasize. The risk of gastric cancer is also increased in Down syndrome. Risk of gastric cancer is not increased after partial gastrectomy. The relationship between atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer is explored. Another opinion, The association of cigarette smoking with gastric cancer is equivocal. Pernicious anemia, an autoimmune disease where the stomach does not produce stomach acid, has also been linked to gastric cancer.
There are two major variants of gastric cancer, intestinal type and a diffuse type. One type of gastric cancer is associated with infection by the Helicobacter pylori (H. Pylori), Helicobacter pylori associated with a high prevalence of duodenal ulcer disease and a low prevalence of gastric cancer in a developing nation. Gastric cancer is classified by the tissue type and location in the stomach.
Diffuse-type gastric cancer (DGC) is a specific type of stomach cancer that tends to affect much of the stomach rather than staying in one area of the stomach, These is the most deadly form of gastric cancer and is frequently accompanied by peritoneal dissemination and metastasis. In the diffuse type of gastric cancer, glandular structure is often not present and cells are scattered as either solitary cells or small clusters of cells.
On the era 1940, in United State the intestinal type cancer is the most common. Rigth now, Adenocarcinoma is the most common type of gastric cancer [American Cancer Society, 2005; Rustgi, 2004]. Intestinal type was more frequent in male, This is type of gastric cancer has also been related to diet.
The initial diagnosis of gastric cancer is often delayed because up to 80% of patients do not show symptoms during early stages of the disease. Anyhow, In the early stages of gastric cancer, may the patients has complaint of the following symptoms :
- Indigestion and stomach discomfort.
- A bloated feeling after eating.
- Mild nausea.
- Loss of appetite.
For the advanced stages of gastric cancer, the following symptoms may occur :
- Blood in the stool.
- Weight loss (unexplained).
- Stomach pain.
- Jaundice (yellowing of eyes and skin).
- Ascites (build-up of fluid in the abdomen).
- Difficulty swallowing.
Certain laboratory tests can be helpful in figuring out how serious (advanced) the gastric cancer is. Advanced gastric cancer is generally refractory to chemotherapy, which leads to poor prognosis. The best test that can be done to evaluate for gastric cancer is an endoscopic examination of the stomach. Physical examination also an essential to rule out distant spread of disease.
When the diagnosis of gastric cancer is established, it is most often advanced. according to many reasearch, The prognosis for gastric cancer is poor. When gastric cancer is found early, there is a better chance of recovery. Unfortunately, many cases are not diagnosed until late stages of disease, which underscores the importance of the palliative treatment of gastric cancer.
Gastric cancer is Currently, the only known curative therapy for nonmetastatic gastric cancer is a gastrectomy performed by experienced surgeons. Chemotherapy and radiation therapy can also be used to treat and relieve symptoms of the disease. If stomach cancer or gastric cancer is caught at an early stage, and the entire tumor is removed, a complete recovery is possible. For the patient who post surgery of gastric cancer, The dokter will recommended them to perform repeated endoscopic examination at least first 6 months after eradication therapy. Postoperative chemoradiation therapy may be considered for patients with stage III gastric cancer.
The role of adjuvant therapy in gastric cancer has been controversial given the lack of significant survival benefit in many randomized studies so far. Thus novel therapeutic approaches such as gene therapy promise to become the alternative choice of treatment in gastric cancer. In Europe, another drug that is being studied in the phase 3 setting is irinotecan in advanced gastric cancer.
posted by Cancer Disease @ 2.5.08, ,