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Pancreatic Cancer Disease

The pancreas is a gland about six inches long in the upper abdomen (behind your stomach and in front of your spine) located beneath the stomach and adjacent to the first portion of the small intestine, called the duodenum. The pancreas has two main functions, exocrine function (make production of enzymes that help in digestion) and endocrine function (make production of the two hormones, insulin and glucagon).

Pancreatic cancer (cancer of the pancreas) is group of cells display uncontrolled growth (malignant neoplasm) found in the tissues of the pancreas, Also called exocrine cancer. Pancreatic cancer often has a poor prognosis even when diagnosed early. Pancreatic cancer typically spreads rapidly and is seldom detected in its early stages, which is a major reason why it's a leading cause of cancer death.


Pancreatic cancer in the United States, about 42,470 individuals are diagnosed with this condition and 35,240 die from the disease. In Europe more than 60,000 are diagnosed each year. From total of patient who diagnosed as Pancreatic cancer, Only less than 5 percent are still alive five years after diagnosis.


Pancreatic Cancer Causes and Risks Factor :

Pancreatic cancer occurs when cells in your pancreas develop genetic mutations and cause of cells to grow uncontrollably and to continue living after normal cells would die.

The medical doctors (scientists) still do not know exactly what causes of Pancreatic cancer, they are learning that some things increase a person's chance of getting this disease. Some risk factors for developing pancreatic cancer include ;
  • Advanced age. Particularly over 60

  • Smoking. Cigarettes, cigars and chewing tobacco all increase pancreatic cancer risk. Cigarette smoke contains chemicals called nitrosamines as one of carcinogenic. Research shows that cigarette smokers develop cancer of the pancreas two to three times more often than nonsmokers

  • Diet. Diets low in vegetables and fruits, Diets high in red meat. There is occasionally talk about coffee drinking being linked to pancreatic cancer, but this has not been confirmed in research studies.

  • Alcohol. It is controversial whether alcohol consumption is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer. Patients with chronic pancreatitis in people who drink a lot of alcohol doesn't increase their risk as much as other types of chronic. If there is a link with alcohol and pancreatic cancer risk, it is only very slight.

  • Body weight and exercise. Being overweight (Obesity) causes a small increase in the risk of pancreatic cancer. We now that one of the pancreas function is make production of hormones insulin, overweight or inactive people (little or no physical activity) can make more insulin in the body. This condition may increase the risk of pancreatic cancer

  • Other medical conditions. Such as; Long-term diabetes, Chronic pancreatitis, Helicobacter pylori infection (Stomach ulcer), Gingivitis or periodontal disease, and Certain hereditary disorders.

  • Cancers running in the family and genes. This is a rare condition, In 5-10% of pancreatic cancer patients have a family history of pancreatic cancer. The genes responsible for most of this clustering in families have yet to be identified.

  • Statins. One study has shown a reduced risk of pancreatic cancer in men taking the anticholesterol drugs, statins.

Types of Pancreatic Cancer :
  1. Pancreatic cancer that forms in the pancreas ducts (adenocarcinoma). Cells that line the ducts of the pancreas help produce digestive juices. The majority of pancreatic cancers are adenocarcinomas. Sometimes these cancers are called exocrine tumors.

  2. Pancreatic cancer that forms in the hormone-producing cells, it's called endocrine cancer. Endocrine cancers of the pancreas are very rare.


Sign and Symptom of Pancreatic Cancer :

Signs and symptoms of pancreatic cancer often don't occur until the disease is advanced. On the early stage it will not present the symptoms, That is the reason why the Pancreatic cancer also called a "silent killer".

Common symptoms of pancreatic cancer when appear, they may include;
  • Upper abdominal pain that may radiate to your back
  • Yellowing of your skin and the whites of your eyes (jaundice)
  • Loss of appetite (anorexia), and/or nausea and vomiting
  • Significant weight loss
  • And Depression

Pancreatic Cancer Treatments and Drugs :

The medical team will see the condition of patient when they decide to give treatment for pancreatic cancer. There are many factors to treat of pancreatic cancer; How the cancer's type, size, and extent of the tumor as well as the patient's age and general health.

The most action to treat of pancreatic cancer are Surgery, Radiation therapy, Chemotherapy, Targeted drug therapy, and Nutritional supplements.

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posted by Cancer Disease @ 29.5.09, ,



Kidney Cancer Disease

Every human they have two kidneys. The kidneys are a pair of organs on either side of the spine in the lower abdomen. Each kidney is composed of about one million microscopic "filtering packets" called glomeruli. The kidneys are part of the urinary tract which made urine by removing wastes and extra water from the blood.

What is kidney cancer disease?

Kidney cancer is cancer that forms in tissues of the kidneys. Kidney cancer develops most often in people over 40, but no one knows the exact causes of this disease.

The most common type of kidney cancer in adult is renal cell carcinoma (RCC), approximately 85% of all cases. This is kind of cancer that forms in the lining of very small tubes in the kidney that filter the blood and remove waste products). The Other kidney cancer disease which attack some adult is renal pelvis carcinoma (RPC). Renal pelvis carcinoma is a kidney cancer that forms in the center of the kidney where urine collects.


Kidney cancer in the children are more likely to develop a kind of kidney cancer called Wilms' tumor. Early diagnosis of kidney cancer is important.

Who's at risk to get kidney cancer disease?
  • Some of research or studies have found that the risk factors to get kidney cancer are :
  • Smoking: Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor to develop of many cancer. The smokers are twice as likely as nonsmokers to get kidney cancer disease. Simply we can say that, smoking can make increase of value in the kidney cancer disease.
  • Obesity: The people who has fat body (obese) are also as high risk to get kidney cancer disease.
  • High blood pressure: High blood pressure increases the risk of kidney cancer.
  • Long-term dialysis: The patient who always getting dialysis treatment for many years are having risk factor for kidney cancer disease.
  • Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) syndrome: VHL is a rare disease that runs in some families. It is caused by changes in the VHL gene. An abnormal VHL gene increases the risk of kidney cancer. It also can cause cysts or tumors in the eyes, brain, and other parts of the body. Family members of those with this syndrome can have a test to check for the abnormal VHL gene. For people with the abnormal VHL gene, doctors may suggest ways to improve the detection of kidney cancer and other diseases before symptoms develop.
  • Occupation: Those people who contact with certain chemicals or substances in their workplace, They are also include in the risk of getting kidney cancer disease. Coke oven workers in the iron and steel industry are at risk. Workers exposed to asbestos or cadmium also may be at risk.
  • Gender: Males are more likely than females to be diagnosed with kidney cancer disease. Each year in the United States, about 20,000 men and 12,000 women learn they have kidney cancer.

According to the National Cancer Institute, the highest incidence of kidney cancer occurs in the United States, Canada, Northern Europe, Australia, and New Zealand. The lowest incidence is found in Thailand, China, and the Philippines.

What is Sign and Symptom of Kidney Cancer?

Kidney cancer disease rarely causes signs or symptoms in the early stages, But in the later stages of kidney cancer disease mostly perform signs and symptoms bellow:
  • Blood in the urine (appear pink, red or cola-colored)
  • A lump or mass in the abdomen
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Back pain just below the ribs that doesn't go away
  • Loss of appetite
  • Intermittent Fever
  • Swelling (edema) in the legs and ankles
  • Feeling very tired or having a general feeling of poor health

How to Diagnose of kidney cancer disease?

To diagnose of kidney cancer diseasse the Doctors may order the following examination :
Physical exam: Is there any fever and high blood pressure, and He/She also feels the abdomen and side for tumors.
  • Urine tests: Urine is checked for blood and other signs of disease.
  • Blood tests: The lab checks the blood to see how well the kidneys are working. The lab may check the level of several substances, such as creatinine. A high level of creatinine may mean the kidneys are not doing their job.
  • Now days, Most of kidney cancers disease are discovered by chance when an imaging test such as computed tomography (CT) or Ultrasonography.

How to decide stage of kidney cancer disease?
  • Stage I Kidney Cancer disease, the cancer is found only in the kidney.
  • Stage II Kidney Cancer, the cancer has spread to the fat around the kidney, but the cancer has not spread beyond this to the capsule that contains the kidney.
  • Stage III Kidney Cancer, In this stage the kidney cancer disease classified by the cancer spreading to the main blood vessel that carries clean blood from the kidney (renal vein), to the blood vessel that carries blood from the lower part of the body to the heart (inferior vena cava), or to lymph nodes around the kidney.
  • Stage IV Kidney Cancer, the cancer has spread to nearby organs such as the bowel or pancreas or has spread to other places in the body such as the lungs.


Treatment of kidney cancer disease :

Treatment for kidney cancer disease depends on a number of factors including the stage of the cancer, and the patient's general health and age. Bellow are options that may perform by the doctor to treat their patient who diagnose as kidney cancer disease :
  • Surgery (to remove cancerous tissue)
  • Chemotherapy (using drugs to destroy cancer cells)
  • Radiation therapy (using high-energy radiation to destroy cancer cells and shrink tumors)
  • Hormone therapy (using hormones to prevent cancer cell growth)
  • Biological or Immunotherapy (using compounds produced by the body's immune system, or laboratory-produced copies of them, to destroy cancer cells)

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posted by Cancer Disease @ 16.5.09, ,